# Analysis of the pointwise completeness and the pointwise degeneracy of the standard and fractional descriptor linear systems and electrical circuits

## DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24136/jaeee.2023.001## Keywords:

descriptor, fractional, linear, electrical circuit, Drazin inverse## Abstract

The Drazin inverse of matrices is applied to analysis of the pointwise completeness and the pointwise degeneracy of the descriptor standard and fractional linear continuous-time and discrete-time systems. It is shown that: 1) The descriptor linear continuous-time system is pointwise complete if and only if the initial and final states belong to the same subspace. 2) The descriptor linear discrete-time system is not pointwise complete if its system matrix is singular. 3) System obtained by discretization of continuous-time system is always not pointwise complete. 4) The descriptor linear continuous-time system is not pointwise degenerated in any nonzero direction for all nonzero initial conditions. 5) The descriptor fractional system is pointwise complete if the matrix defined by (36) is invertible. 6) The descriptor fractional system is pointwise degenerated if and only if the condition (41) is satisfied. Considerations are illustrated by examples of descriptor linear electrical circuits.

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