Stability of profits and earnings management in the transport sector of Visegrad countries

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2022.015

Keywords:

business profit, earnings management, stationarity, transport sector, Visegrad four

Abstract

Research background: Business profit and its stable development are key performance indicators. Many enterprises performed earnings manipulation, either upward or downward, according to the current business and macroeconomic situation, as well as time. These activities may interrupt the stationarity of time series. This article focuses on the transport enterprises, and the assessment of bonds in their earnings.

Purpose of the article: The target of the article was to identify the occurrence of non-stationary and its unit root in the EBITDA of transport enterprises for each country in V4 during the period of 2010?2019.

Methods: The stationarity and unit roots in time series were tested by the Kwiatkowski, Phillips, Schmidt, and Shin tests and the Augmented Dickey-Fuller based on the samples of 470 Slovak, 405 Czech, 774 Polish, and 1,056 Hungarian. The behavior of earnings manipulation (the first cause of non-stationarity) was indicated by the Modified Jones model. Additional causes for non-stationarity were confirmed by the regression analysis, including factors such as the GDP, unemployment rate, average monthly gross wage, and the Ease of doing business index.

Findings & value added: The non-stationarity in the time series of EBITDA was disclosed for each country in the V4 region. Earnings management was discovered to be the cause of this erratic development. Thus, the value-added for the authorities and auditors is to show the association between non-stationary and creative accounting. In addition, purposeful downward manipulation in the transport sector occurs, not upward, which is typical in general. The methodology used in the study may be applied cross-sectorally in emerging countries. The labelling of specific macroeconomic variables depending on the country offers enterprises the opportunity to focus on factors with a crucial influence on their existence and activities.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Akca, A., & Canakoglu, E. (2021). Adaptive stochastic risk estimation of firm operating profit. Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, 48(3), 463?504. doi: 10.1007/s40812-021-00184-z.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40812-021-00184-z
View in Google Scholar

Ali, Y., Bilal, M., & Sabir, M. (2021). Impacts of transport strike on Pakistan economy: an inoperability Input-Output model (IIOM) approach. Research in Transportation Economics, 90, 100860. doi: 10.1016/j.retrec.2020.100860.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.retrec.2020.100860
View in Google Scholar

Ali, Y., Socci, C., Pretaroli, R., & Severini, F. (2018). Economic and environmen-tal impact of transport sector on Europe economy. Asia-Pacific Journal of Regional Science, 2(2), 361?397. doi: 10.1007/s41685-017-0066-9.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41685-017-0066-9
View in Google Scholar

Andrijauskiene, M., Dumciuviene, D., & Stundziene, A. (2021). EU framework programmes: positive and negative effects on member states' innovation per-formance. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics And Economic Policy, 16(3), 471?502. doi: 10.24136/eq.2021.017.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24136/eq.2021.017
View in Google Scholar

Bai, J., & Ng, S. (2005). Tests for skewness, kurtosis, and normality for time series data. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 23(1), 49?60. doi: 10.1198/07 3500104000000271.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1198/073500104000000271
View in Google Scholar

Belas, J., & Cepel, M. (2020). Market risk in the SMEs segment in the Visegrad Group countries. Transformations in Business & Economics, 19(3C), 678?693.
View in Google Scholar

Bennett, A. (2021). Autonomous vehicle driving algorithms and smart mobility technologies in big data-driven transportation planning and engineering. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, 13(1), 20?29. doi: 10.2238 1/CRLSJ13120212.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22381/CRLSJ13120212
View in Google Scholar

Bennett, S., Durana, P., & Konecny, V. (2020). Urban internet of things systems and interconnected sensor networks in sustainable smart city governance. Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, 12(2), 51?57. doi: 10.22381/ GHIR12220207.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22381/GHIR12220206
View in Google Scholar

Blake, R., & Frajtova Michalikova, K. (2021). Deep learning-based sensing tech-nologies, artificial intelligence-based decision-making algorithms, and big geospatial data analytics in cognitive internet of things. Analysis and Meta-physics, 20, 159?173. doi: 10.22381/am20202111.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22381/AM20202111
View in Google Scholar

Blazek, R., Durana, P., & Valaskova, K. (2020). Creative accounting as an appa-ratus for reporting profits in agribusiness. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 13(11), 261. doi: 10.3390/jrfm13110261.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13110261
View in Google Scholar

Box, G. E., & Pierce, D. A. (1970). Distribution of residual autocorrelations in autoregressive-integrated moving average time series models. Journal of the American statistical Association, 65(332), 1509?1526. doi: 10.2307/2284333.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1970.10481180
View in Google Scholar

Cabinova, V., Gallo, P., Partlova, P., Dobrovic, J., & Stoch, M. (2021). Evaluating business performance and efficiency in the medical tourism: a multi-criteria approach. Journal of Tourism and Services, 12(22), 198-221. doi: 10.29036/jot s.v12i22.247.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29036/jots.v12i22.247
View in Google Scholar

Campbell, E., & Bilan, Y. (2021). Robotic wireless sensor networks, internet of things-enabled sustainability, and real-time advanced analytics in cyber-physical system-based smart factories. Economics, Management, and Finan-cial Markets, 16(3), 68?80. doi: 10.22381/emfm16320214.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22381/emfm16320214
View in Google Scholar

Chen, E. H. (1971). The power of the Shapiro-Wilk W test for normality in sam-ples from contaminated normal distributions. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 66(336), 760?762. doi: 10.1080/01621459.1971.104823 42.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1971.10482342
View in Google Scholar

Chovancova, J., & Tej, J. (2020). Decoupling economic growth from greenhouse gas emissions: the case of the energy sector in V4 countries. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 15(2), 235?251. doi: 10.24136/eq.2020.011.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24136/eq.2020.011
View in Google Scholar

Civelek, M., Kljucnikov, A., Fialova, V., Folvarcna, A., & Stoch, M. (2021). Ma-jor obstacles in innovative activities of family-owned SMEs: evidence from Czechia. Economics and Sociology, 14(2), 137?149. doi: 10.14254/2071-789X.2021/14-2/7.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2021/14-2/7
View in Google Scholar

Cooper, H., Poliak, M., & Konecny, V. (2021). Computationally networked urban-ism and data-driven planning technologies in smart and environmentally sus-tainable cities. Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, 13(1), 20?30. doi: 10.22381/GHIR13120212.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22381/GHIR13120212
View in Google Scholar

Dalic, I., & Terzic, S. (2021). Violation of the assumption of homoscedasticity and detection of heteroscedasticity. Decision Making: Applications in Man-agement and Engineering, 4(1), 1?18. doi: 10.31181/dmame2104001d.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31181/dmame2104001d
View in Google Scholar

Dechow, P. M., Sloan, R. G., & Sweeney, A. (1995). Detecting earnings manage-ment. Accounting Review, 70(2), 193?225.
View in Google Scholar

Devereux, M. P. (2019). How should business profit be taxed? Some thoughts on conceptual developments during the lifetime of the IFS. Fiscal Studies, 40(4), 591?619. doi: 10.1111/1475-5890.12205.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-5890.12205
View in Google Scholar

Dias, R., Teixeira, N., Machova, V., Pardal, P., Horak, J., & Vochozka, M. (2020). Random walks and market efficiency tests: evidence on US, Chinese and Eu-ropean capital markets within the context of the global Covid-19 pandemic. Oeconomia Copernicana, 11(4), 585?608. doi: 10.24136/oc.2020.024.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2020.024
View in Google Scholar

Duft, G., & Durana, P. (2020). Artificial intelligence-based decision-making algorithms, automated production systems, and big data-driven innovation in sustainable Industry 4.0. Economics, Management and Financial Markets, 15(4), 9?18. doi: 10.22381/EMFM15420201.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22381/EMFM15420201
View in Google Scholar

Durana, P., Ginevicius, R., Urbanski, M., Podhorska, I., & Tumpach, M. (2021a). Parallels and differences in earnings management of the Visegrad Four and the Baltics. Journal of Competitiveness, 13(3), 39?55. doi: 10.7441/joc.2021.03.03.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7441/joc.2021.03.03
View in Google Scholar

Durana, P., Michalkova, L., Privara, A., Marousek, J., & Tumpach, M. (2021b). Does the life cycle affect earnings management and bankruptcy? Oeconomia Copernicana, 12(2), 425?461. doi: 10.24136/oc.2021.015.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2021.015
View in Google Scholar

Durana, P., Valaskova, K., Blazek, R., & Palo, J. (2022a). Metamorphoses of earnings in the transport sector of the V4 region. Mathematics, 10(8), 1204. doi: 10.3390/math10081204.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/math10081204
View in Google Scholar

Durana, P., Valaskova, K., Chlebikova, D., Krastev, V., & Atanasova, I. (2020a). Heads and tails of earnings management: quantitative analysis in emerging countries. Risks, 8(2), 57. doi: 10.3390/risks8020057.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/risks8020057
View in Google Scholar

Durana, P., Valaskova, K., Siekelova, A., & Michalkova, L. (2022b). Appraisal of earnings management across the sectors. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 23(2), 399?425. doi:10.3846/jbem.2022.16563.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3846/jbem.2022.16563
View in Google Scholar

Durana, P., Zauskova, A., Vagner, L., & Zadnanova, S. (2020b). Earnings drivers of Slovak manufacturers: efficiency assessment of innovation management. Applied Sciences, 10(12), 4251. doi: 10.3390/app10124251.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124251
View in Google Scholar

Ehsan, S., Tariq, A., Nazir, M. S., Shabbir, M. S., Shabbir, R., Lopez, L. B., & Ullah, W. (2022). Nexus between corporate social responsibility and earnings management: Sustainable or opportunistic. Managerial and Decision Economics, 43(2), 478?495. doi: 10.1002/mde.3396.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/mde.3396
View in Google Scholar

Elnahass, M., Salama, A., & Yusuf, N. (2022). Earnings management and internal governance mechanisms: the role of religiosity. Research in International Business and Finance, 59, 101565. doi: 10.1016/j.ribaf.2021.101565.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ribaf.2021.101565
View in Google Scholar

Firmansyah, A., Husna, M. C., & Putri, M. A. (2021). Corporate social responsi-bility disclosure, corporate governance disclosures, and firm value in Indone-sia chemical, plastic, and packaging sub-sector companies. Accounting Analy-sis Journal, 10(1), 9?17. doi: 10.15294/aaj.v10i1.42102.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15294/aaj.v10i1.42102
View in Google Scholar

Fischer, J. A., Pohl, P., & Ratz, D. (2020). A machine learning approach to uni-variate time series forecasting of quarterly earnings. Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, 55(4), 1163?1179. doi: 10.1007/s11156-020-00871-3.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11156-020-00871-3
View in Google Scholar

Frajtova Michalikova, K., Blazek, R., & Rydell, L. (2022). Delivery apps use during the COVID-19 pandemic: consumer satisfaction judgments, behavioral intentions, and purchase decisions. Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 17(1), 70?82. doi: 10.22381/emfm17120225.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22381/emfm17120225
View in Google Scholar

Gabrielczak, P., & Kuziemska-Pawlak, K. (2021). The specialisation and sophis-tication of services exports: the case of the Visegrad countries. Journal of International Studies, 14(3), 93?113. doi: 10.14254/2071-8330.2021/14-3/6.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-8330.2021/14-3/6
View in Google Scholar

Gashi Ahmeti, H., & Fetai, B. (2021). Determinants of Financing Obstacles of SMEs in Western Balkans. Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy, 9(3), 331?344. doi: 10.2478/mdke2021-0022.
View in Google Scholar

Griffin, K., & Krastev, V. (2021). Smart traffic planning and analytics, autono-mous mobility technologies, and algorithm-driven sensing devices in urban transportation systems. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, 13(2), 65?78. doi: 10.22381/CRLSJ13220215.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22381/CRLSJ13220215
View in Google Scholar

Hamzah, F. H. A., Abd Hamid, N., & Zawawi, S. N. M. (2021). Tax avoidance over time: insights from the incentivised corporate taxpayer Polish Journal of Management Studies, 24(1), 126?141. doi:10.17512/pjms.2021.24.1.08.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17512/pjms.2021.24.1.08
View in Google Scholar

Hewamalage, H., Bergmeir, C., & Bandara, K. (2021). Recurrent neural networks for time series forecasting: current status and future directions. International Journal of Forecasting, 37(1), 388?427. doi: 10.1016/j.ijforecast.2020.06.008.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijforecast.2020.06.008
View in Google Scholar

Hickman, L. E., Iyer, S. R., & Jadiyappa, N. (2021). The effect of voluntary and mandatory corporate social responsibility on earnings management: evidence from India and the 2% rule. Emerging Markets Review, 46, 100750. doi: 10.1016/j.ememar.2020.100750.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ememar.2020.100750
View in Google Scholar

Hlawiczka, R., Blazek, R., Santoro, G., & Zanellato, G. (2021). Comparison of the terms creative accounting, earnings management, and fraudulent accounting through bibliographic analysis. Ekonomicko?manazerske spektrum, 15(2), 27?37. doi: 10.26552/ems.2021.2.27?37.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26552/ems.2021.2.27-37
View in Google Scholar

Hobijn, B., Franses, P. H., & Ooms, M. (2004). Generalizations of the KPSS?test for stationarity. Statistica Neerlandica, 58(4), 483?502. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9574.2004.00272.x.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9574.2004.00272.x
View in Google Scholar

Holmes, J., & Cug, J. (2021). Autonomous vehicle routing and navigation, com-puter vision algorithms, and transportation analytics in network connectivity systems. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice, 13(2), 135?148. doi: 10.22381/CRLSJ132202110.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22381/CRLSJ132202110
View in Google Scholar

Hopkins, E., & Siekelova, A. (2021). Internet of things sensing networks, smart manufacturing big data, and digitized mass production in sustainable industry 4.0. Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 16(4), 28?41. doi: 10.2 2381/emfm16420212.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22381/emfm16420212
View in Google Scholar

Hudakova, M., Gabrysova, M., Petrakova, Z., Buganova, K., & Krajcik, V. (2021). The perception of market and economic risks by owners and managers of en-terprises in the V4 Countries. Journal of Competitiveness, 13(4), 60?77. doi: 10.7441/joc.2021.04.04.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7441/joc.2021.04.04
View in Google Scholar

Khan, S. & Kamal, Y. (2022). Family business groups and earnings manipulation: an emerging economy perspective. Cogent Economics & Finance, 10(1), 2017100. doi: 10.1080/23322039.2021.2017100.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23322039.2021.2017100
View in Google Scholar

Kim, H. (2021). A finite sample correction for the panel Durbin?Watson test. Applied Economics, 54(28), 3197?3205. doi: 10.1080/00036846.2020.1869172.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00036846.2020.1869172
View in Google Scholar

Kliestik, T., Belas, J., Valaskova, K., Nica, E., & Durana, P. (2020). Earnings management in V4 countries: the evidence of earnings smoothing and inflat-ing. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 34(1), 1452?1470. doi: 10.1080/1 331677X.2020.1831944.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2020.1831944
View in Google Scholar

Kristofik, P., & Slampiakova, L. (2021). Differences in capital structure of pub-licly traded companies in Europe and USA. Politicka ekonomie, 69(3), 322?339. doi: 10.18267/j.polek.1320.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18267/j.polek.1320
View in Google Scholar

Krulicky, T., & Horak, J. (2021). Business performance and financial health as-sessment through artificial intelligence. Ekonomicko-manazerske spektrum, 15(2), 38?51. doi: 10.26552/ems.2021.2.38-51.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26552/ems.2021.2.38-51
View in Google Scholar

Kwiatkowski, D., Phillips, P. C., Schmidt, P., & Shin, Y. (1992). Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root: how sure are we that economic time series have a unit root? Journal of Econometrics, 54(1-3), 159?178. doi: 10.1016/0304-4076(92)90104-Y.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4076(92)90104-Y
View in Google Scholar

Lazaroiu, G., & Harrison, A. (2021). Internet of things sensing infrastructures and data-driven planning technologies in smart sustainable city governance and management. Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, 13(2), 23?36. doi: 10.22381/GHIR13220212.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22381/GHIR13220212
View in Google Scholar

Manikas, A. S., Kroes, J. R., & Gattiker, T. F. (2019). Misalignment between societal well-being and business profit maximization: the case of New York taxis drivers? incentive system. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 67, 1?8. doi: 10.1016/j.seps.2018.08.001.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seps.2018.08.001
View in Google Scholar

Martinez-Martinez, D., Andrades, J., Larran, M., Muriel, M.J., & Lechuga San-cho, M.P. (2021). Determinants of earnings management in Spanish SMEs and its relationship with CSR: the relevance of sector life cycle stage. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 28(3), 399?428. doi: 10.1108/JSBED-07 -2020-0257.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JSBED-07-2020-0257
View in Google Scholar

Matuka, A., & Asafo, S. S. (2021). Effects of services on economic growth in Albania: an ARDL approach. Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, 30(6), 856?881. doi: 10.1080/09638199.2021.191072.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09638199.2021.1910723
View in Google Scholar

Mey, M. T., & Lamprecht, C. (2021). The association between EBITDA reconcili-ation quality and opportunistic disclosure. South African Journal of Account-ing Research, 35(2), 87?110. doi: 10.1080/10291954.2020.1817268.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10291954.2020.1817268
View in Google Scholar

Michalkova, L., Cepel, M., Valaskova, K., & Vincurova, Z. (2022). Earnings quality and corporate life cycle before crisis. Study of transport companies across Europe. Amfiteatru Economic. (accepted for publication).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24818/EA/2022/61/782
View in Google Scholar

Mitan, A., Siekelova, A., Rusu, M., & Rovnak. M. (2021). Value-based manage-ment: a case study of Visegrad Four countries. Ekonomicko-manazerske spektrum, 15(2), 87?98. doi: 10.26552/ems.2021.2.87-98.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26552/ems.2021.2.87-98
View in Google Scholar

Mulligan, K. (2021). Computationally networked urbanism and advanced sustain-ability analytics in internet of things-enabled smart city governance. Geopoli-tics, History, and International Relations, 13(2), 121?134. doi: 10.22381/GHIR132 20219.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22381/GHIR13220219
View in Google Scholar

Nastisin, L., Gavurova, B., Bacik, R., Svetozarovova, N., & Fedorko, R. (2021). Sustainable performance of players in the global aviation industry in the light of multi?factor analysis of online reputation. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge, 9(1), 1?9. doi: 10.37335/ijek.v9i1.130.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37335/ijek.v9i1.130
View in Google Scholar

Njoya, E. T., & Nikitas, A. (2020). The role of air transport in employment crea-tion and inclusive growth in the Global South: the case of South Africa. Journal of Transport Geography, 85, 102738. doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102 738.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2020.102738
View in Google Scholar

Nyulasziova, M., & Palova, D. (2020). Implementing a decision support system in the transport process management of a small Slovak transport company. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation, 16(1), 75?106. doi: 10.7341/20201613.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7341/20201613
View in Google Scholar

Pagach, D. P., & Warr, R. S. (2020). Analysts versus time-series forecasts of quarterly earnings: a maintained hypothesis revisited. Advances in Account-ing, 51, 100497. doi: 10.1016/j.adiac.2020.100497.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adiac.2020.100497
View in Google Scholar

Palacios-Manzano, M., Gras-Gil, E., & Santos-Jaen, J. M. (2021). Corporate so-cial responsibility and its effect on earnings management: an empirical re-search on Spanish firms. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 32(7-8), 921?937. doi: 10.1080/14783363.2019.1652586.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14783363.2019.1652586
View in Google Scholar

Pratiwi, W., & Pralita, T. (2021). The influence of corporate governance mecha-nism, accounting conservatism, and company size on earnings quality. Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Studies, 4(01), 26?34. doi: 10.47191/ jefms/v4-i1-04.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47191/jefms/v4-i1-04
View in Google Scholar

Saji, T. G. (2021). Price reversals after extreme price shocks: impact of earnings information with time series evidence from emerging market. Journal of Accounting, Auditing & Finance. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/01 48558X211065290.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0148558X211065290
View in Google Scholar

Sami, J. (2020). Time series dynamics of sugar export earnings in Fiji with multi-ple endogenous structural breaks: implications for EU sugar and industry re-forms. Journal of Quantitative Economics, 18(1), 169?189. doi: 10.1007/s409 53-019-00173-z.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40953-019-00173-z
View in Google Scholar

Shafique, M., Azam, A., Rafiq, M., & Luo, X. (2021). Investigating the nexus among transport, economic growth and environmental degradation: evidence from panel ARDL approach. Transport Policy, 109, 61?71. doi: 10.1016/j.tranp ol.2021.04.014.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2021.04.014
View in Google Scholar

Shapiro, S. S., & Wilk, M. B. (1965). An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika, 52(3/4), 591?611. doi: 10.2307/2333709.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/biomet/52.3-4.591
View in Google Scholar

Sharapiyeva, M. D. Kunanbayeva, D., Nurseiytova, G., & Kozhamkulova, Z. (2019). Energy efficiency of transport and logistics infrastructure: the exam-ple of the Republic of Kazakhstan. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 9(5), 331?338. doi: 10.32479/ijeep.8204.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.8204
View in Google Scholar

Siekelova, A., Androniceanu, A., Durana, P., & Michalikova, K. F. (2020). Earn-ings management (EM), initiatives and company size: an empirical study. Ac-ta Polytechnica Hungarica, 17(9), 41?56. doi: 10.12700/APH.17.9.2020.9.3.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.12700/APH.17.9.2020.9.3
View in Google Scholar

Siekelova, A., Belas, J., Podhorska, I., & Durana, P. (2021). Accrual-based earn-ings management: a case study in V4 focusing on mining and quarrying sec-tor. Acta Montanistica Slovaca, 26(1), pp. 70?83. doi: 10.46544/AMS.V26I1.06.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46544/AMS.v26i1.06
View in Google Scholar

Simonidesova, J., Kudlova, Z., Lukac, J., Manova, E., & Culkova, K. (2021). Tax aspects of mining companies in V4 countries. Acta Montanistica Slovaca, 26(1), 35?46. doi: 10.46544/AMS.v26i1.03.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.46544/AMS.v26i1.03
View in Google Scholar

Sosnowski, T. (2021). The credibility of earnings announced by new stock com-panies: accrual and real earnings management. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 16(3), 661?677. doi: 10.24136/eq.2021.024.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24136/eq.2021.024
View in Google Scholar

Svabova, L., Valaskova, K., Durana, P., & Kliestik, T. (2020). Dependency analy-sis between various profit measures and corporate total assets for Visegrad group?s business entities. Organizacija, 53(1), 80?90. doi: 10.2478/orga-2020-0006.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/orga-2020-0006
View in Google Scholar

Thai, V. H., Dinh, V. T., Nguyen, V. S., Nguyen, M. H., Nguyen, C. T., & Pham, T. L. P. (2021). The influence of earning management and surplus free cash flow on the banking sector performance. Polish Journal of Management Studies, 23(1), 403?417. doi: 10.17512/pjms.2021.23.1.25.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17512/pjms.2021.23.1.25
View in Google Scholar

Vagner, L., Valaskova, K., Durana, P., & Lazaroiu, G. (2021). Earnings manage-ment: a bibliometric analysis. Economics & Sociology, 14(1), 249?262. doi: 10.14254/2071?789X.2021/14?1/16.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2021/14-1/16
View in Google Scholar

Valaskova, K., Adamko, P., Frajtova Michalikova, K., & Macek, J. (2021a). Quo vadis, earnings management? Analysis of manipulation determinants in Cen-tral European environment. Oeconomia Copernicana, 12(3), 631?669. doi: 10.241 36/oc.2021.021.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2021.021
View in Google Scholar

Valaskova, K., Androniceanu, A-M., Zvarikova, K., & Olah, J. (2021b). Bonds between earnings management and corporate financial stability in the context of the competitive ability of enterprises. Journal of Competitiveness, 13(4), 167?184. doi: 10.7441/joc.2021.04.10.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.7441/joc.2021.04.10
View in Google Scholar

Valaskova, K., Gavurova, B., Durana, P., & Kovacova, M. (2020). Alter ego only four times? The case study of business profits in the Visegrad Group. E&M Economics and Management, 23(3), 101?119. doi: 10.15240/tul/001/2020-3-007.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15240/tul/001/2020-3-007
View in Google Scholar

Valaskova, K., Kliestik, T., & Gajdosikova, D. (2021c). Distinctive determinants of financial indebtedness: evidence from Slovak and Czech enterprises. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 16(3), 639?659. doi: 10.24136/eq.2021.023.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24136/eq.2021.023
View in Google Scholar

Valaskova, K., Kliestik, T., Svabova, L., & Adamko, P. (2018). Financial risk measurement and prediction modelling for sustainable development of busi-ness entities using regression analysis. Sustainability, 10(7), 2144. doi: 10.3390/su1 0072144.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072144
View in Google Scholar

Valaskova, K., Ward, P., & Svabova, L. (2021d). Deep learning-assisted smart process planning, cognitive automation, and industrial Big Data analytics in sustainable cyber-physical production systems. Journal of Self-Governance and Management Economics, 9(2), 9?20. doi: 10.22381/jsme9220211.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22381/jsme9220211
View in Google Scholar

Vukic, L., Mikulic, D., & Kecek, D. (2021). The impact of transportation on the Croatian economy: the input?output approach. Economies, 9(1), 7. doi: 10.3390 /economies9010007.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/economies9010007
View in Google Scholar

Wallace, S., & Lazaroiu, G. (2021). Predictive control algorithms, real-world connected vehicle data, and smart mobility technologies in intelligent trans-portation planning and engineering. Contemporary Readings in Law and So-cial Jstice, 13(2), 79?92. doi: 10.22381/CRLSJ13220216.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22381/CRLSJ13220216
View in Google Scholar

Wijayanti, I., Nelwan, A. N., & Mawardi, R. (2022) Sticky cost behavior in agri-cultural sector companies in indonesia. Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Studies, 5(01), 127?133. doi: 10.47191/jefms/v5-i1-16.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47191/jefms/v5-i1-16
View in Google Scholar

Xie, X., Chang, Y. S., & Shiue, M. J. (2022). Corporate life cycle, family firms, and earnings management: evidence from Taiwan. Advances in Accounting, 56, 100579. doi: 10.1016/j.adiac.2021.100579.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adiac.2021.100579
View in Google Scholar

Zheng, Y., Ye, X., & Wu, T. (2021). Using an optimized learning vector quantiza-tion-(LVQ-) based neural network in accounting fraud recognition. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, 2021, 1-10. doi: 10.1155/2021/4 113237.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4113237
View in Google Scholar

Zvarikova, K., Rowland, M., & Krulicky, T. (2021). Sustainable industry 4.0 wireless networks, smart factory performance, and cognitive automation in cyber-physical system-based manufacturing. Journal of Self-Governance and Management Economics, 9(4), 9?21. doi: 10.22381/jsme9420211.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22381/jsme9420211
View in Google Scholar

Downloads

Published

2022-06-30

How to Cite

Kliestik, T. ., Novak Sedlackova, A. ., Bugaj, M. ., & Novak, A. . (2022). Stability of profits and earnings management in the transport sector of Visegrad countries. Oeconomia Copernicana, 13(2), 475–509. https://doi.org/10.24136/oc.2022.015

Issue

Section

Articles

Similar Articles

<< < 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.