Attitude toward smoking: the effect of negative smoking-related pictures


  • Viktorija Grigaliūnaitė Vytautas Magnus University
  • Lina Pilelienė Vytautas Magnus University



mplicit attitude, explicit attitude, smoking, negative pictures, consumer behaviour


Research background: Endeavouring to develop healthy societies is a primary goal in many countries. As smoking is a major problem of public health, lowering the extent of smoking is one of the conditions for developing a healthy society. Based on the research revealing that the pairing of the product with negative stimuli enhances the possibility of negative reaction to the product as negative stimulus transfers it?s meaning to the product, tobacco packaging was labelled with negative smoking-related pictures illustrating the danger of smoking. Nevertheless, the extent of smoking is still large in many countries. Hence, the effect of negative smoking-related pictures has been the subject of intense debate within the scientific community.
Purpose of the article: The aim of this research is to determine the effect of negative smok-ing-related pictures on the both implicit and explicit attitude toward smoking.
Methods: For the purpose of determining the effect of negative smoking-related pictures on the both implicit and explicit attitude toward smoking, Implicit Association Test and ques-tionnaire survey were provided. The questionnaire was elaborated based on the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature.
Findings & Value added: The theoretical analysis substantiated the influence of attitude toward the product on consumer purchase decisions. Nevertheless, people do not always want to reveal their opinion, hence traditional marketing research methods for measuring explicit attitude are not sufficient as they are often not objective. Therefore, neuromarketing research methods complement traditional marketing research methods by providing more objectivity. Consequently, the Implicit Association Test and traditional questionnaire research are applied for the empirical research, revealing the effect of negative smoking-related pictures on the both implicit and explicit attitude toward smoking. The recommendations for the usage of negative smoking-related pictures on purpose to influence attitude toward smoking and consumer purchase behaviour are substantiated.


Download data is not yet available.


Ayd?no?lu, N. Z., & Cian, L. (2014). Show me the product, show me the model: Effect of picture type on attitudes toward advertising. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 24(4). doi: 10.1016/j.jcps.2014.04.002.
Dietz, N. A., Sly, D. F., Lee, D. J., Arheart, K. L., & McClure, L. A. (2013). Corre-lates of smoking among young adults: the role of lifestyle, attitudes/beliefs, demographics, and exposure to anti-tobacco media messaging. Drug and Alco-hol Dependence, 130. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.10.019.
European Commission (2014). Tobacco products directive (2014/40/EU). Re-trieved form (12.03.2017).
Greenwald, A. G., Rudman, L. A., Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., Farnham, S. D., & Mellott, D. S. (2002). A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept. Psychological Review, 109(1). doi: 10.1037//0033-295X.109.1.3.
Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Per-sonality and Social Psychology, 85(2). doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.2.197.
Khan, H., Lee, R., & Lockshin, L. (2015). Do ethnic cues improve advertising effectiveness for ethnic consumers? Australasian Marketing Journal, 23. doi: 10.1016/j.ausmj.2015.07.001.
Manyiwa, S., & Brennan, R. (2012). Fear appeals in anti-smoking advertising: How important is self-efficacy?. Journal Of Marketing Management, 28(11-12). doi:10.1080/0267257X.2012.715092.
Morgenstern, M., Isensee, B., Sargent, J. D., & Hanewinkel, R. (2011). Exposure to alcohol advertising and teen drinking. Preventive Medicine, 52. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.11.020.
Nonnemaker, J., Kim, A., Shafer, P., Loomis, B., Hill, E., Holloway, J., & Farrelly, M. (2016). Influence of point-of-sale tobacco displays and plain black and white cigarette packaging and advertisements on adults: Evidence from a virtual store experimental study. Addictive Behaviors, 56. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh. 2016.01.001.
Pilelien?, L. (2010). Impact of social marketing tools on consumer behaviour. Human resources ? the main factor of regionaldDevelopment. Journal of Social Sciences, 3.
Pokhrel, P., Fagan, P., Herzog, T. A., Chen, Q., Muranaka, N., Kehl, L., & Unger, J. B. (2016). E-cigarette advertising exposure and implicit attitudes among young adult non-smokers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 163. doi: 0.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.04.008.
Romer, D., & Jamieson, P. (2001). The role of perceived risk in starting and stop-ping smoking. In: P. Slovic (Ed.). Smoking: Risk, perception, and policy. Thou-sand Oaks: Sage. DOI:
Schneider, S., Gadinger, M., & Fischer, A. (2012). Does the effect go up in smoke? A randomized controlled trial of pictorial warnings on cigarette packaging. Pa-tient Education and Counseling, 86(1). doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2011.03.005.
Spears, N., & Singh S. N. (2004). Measuring attitude toward the brand and pur-chase intentions. Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 26(2). doi: 10.1080/10641734.2004.10505164.
Stevenson, J. G., Oliver, J. A., Hallyburton, M. B., Sweitzer, M. M., Conklin, C. A., & McClernon, F. J. (2017). Smoking environment cues reduce ability to resist smoking as measured by a delay to smoking task. Addictive Behaviors, 67. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.12.007.
Thrasher, J. F., Hammond, D., Fong, G. T., & Arillo-Santillán, E. (2007). Smokers? reactions to cigarette packagewarnings with graphic imagery and with only text: a comparison between Mexico and Canada. Salud Pública de México, 49(2). doi: 10.1590/S0036-36342007000800013.




How to Cite

Grigaliūnaitė, V., & Pilelienė, L. (2017). Attitude toward smoking: the effect of negative smoking-related pictures. Oeconomia Copernicana, 8(2), 317?328.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.