On the use of panel stationarity tests in convergence analysis: empirical evidence for the EU countries


  • Mariusz Próchniak Warsaw School of Economics
  • Bartosz Witkowski Warsaw School of Economics




economic growth, convergence, catching up, stationarity, ADF test


The study examines the concept of stochastic convergence in the EU28 countries over the 1994?2013 period. The convergence of individual countries? GDP per capita towards the EU28 average per capita income level and the pair-wise convergence between the GDP of individual countries are both analyzed. Additionally, we introduce our own concept of conditional stochastic convergence which is based on adjusted GDP per capita series in order to account for the impact of other growth factors on GDP. The analysis is based on time series techniques. To assess stationarity, ADF tests are used. The study shows that the process of stochastic convergence in the EU countries is not as widespread as the cross-sectional studies on b or s convergence indicate. Even if we extend the analysis to examine conditional stochastic convergence, the number of converging economies or pairs of countries rises, but not as much as it could be expected from the cross-sectional studies.


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How to Cite

Próchniak, M., & Witkowski, B. (2016). On the use of panel stationarity tests in convergence analysis: empirical evidence for the EU countries. Equilibrium. Quarterly Journal of Economics and Economic Policy, 11(1), 77–96. https://doi.org/10.12775/EQUIL.2016.004



Determinants of growth in European Union countries